Local Variables

Local variables are created local to the method (or the block...see "Block Scope" section below) in which they are defined. They are destroyed when execution of the method has been completed. Local variables can only be accessed from within the method in which they are declared. Because of their transient nature, local variables cannot store persistent information about an object between method calls.

Local Variables Example

Consider, for example, the following snippet of code.

public class AnExample extends ConsoleProgram {

	private void methodOne {
		int a = readInt("Enter a: ");
		println("a = " + a);

	private void methodTwo {
		int b = a;  // BUG!: cannot refer to variable a in methodOne
		println("b = " + b);

The variables a and b are local variables declared within different methods in the class AnExample. Because these variables are local variables, a can only be referred to within methodOne and variable b can only be accessed within methodTwo. Our attempt to initialize b using the value of a is illegal, as code in methodTwo cannot access local variables from methodOne or any other method.

Because local variable values do not persist after their containing method has completed, the variable a will be destroyed when methodOne has completed execution. The next time methodOne is called, a new variable a will be created.

Block Scope

While we typically think of local variables as local to a particular method, in Java local variables are actually local to a block of code. While a method defines a block of code (since the opening and closing braces of the method define a block), for and while loops, if-statements, and other constructs are also considered blocks of code. If we declare a local variable inside one of these constructs, the local variable will be created when it is declared in the block and destroyed when the block ends execution.

Consider the following example:

public class AnExample extends ConsoleProgram {
	private void methodThree {
		int a = 4;

 	 	for (int i = 0; i < 5; i++) {
			int b = a; // this is okay

			if (a > b) { // okay to access a and b here
				int c = 3;

				println(i); // okay to access i here
				println(b); // okay to access b here
				println(c); // okay to access c here

			println(c); // illegal: c is no longer in scope here

		println(a); // okay to access a here
		println(b); // illegal: b is only in scope in body of for loop
		println(i); // illegal: i is only in scope in body of for loop

The variable a is local to methodThree, so accessing a within the for loop, or in the println is fine. The variables i and b are only in scope (i.e., "alive") within the confines of the for loop in which they are declared. They are no longer available by the time the last two printlns try to access them. The variable c is only in scope within the confines of the if statement body in which it is declared. Note that a new copy of c will get created each time the if statement body is executed, therefore it cannot be used to store values across iterations of the for loop.


we will sometimes find it useful to define a "variable" whose value does not change during the entire program. Such a variable is called a constant. In this case, the constant does not fulfill the traditional purpose of a variable (i.e., storing a temporary program value). To declare a variable as a constant, use the keyword final when declaring the variable. Virtually all constants are declared outside all method calls so that their scope is the entire program.

Constants are usually written in all upper case letters to show that they do not change. The key-words private static final, which we include for good practice, are important when you write larger programs.

Consider this example:

public class AnExample extends ConsoleProgram {
	private static final GRAVITY_ACCELERATION = 9.8;

	public void run() {
		double initialVelocity = 0;
		double newVelocity = intialVelocity + GRAVITY_ACCELERATION;
		println("velocity after 1 s: " + newVelocity);